Gender Fluidity is a Social Construct

My position in the university places me more-or-less on the front lines of the predominant cultural, political, and indeed, given that I’m a biologist, scientific issue currently en vogue in the United States: Gender. I’m not sure how to define it more specifically, since it’s not just an issue of so-called transgender rights, but also a sociocultural phenomena wherein the idea of gender is being blurred or entirely eliminated as a concept in our society and culture altogether.

I venture into this specific post knowing full well that claiming gender fluidity, the idea that gender changes over time, isn’t fixed, or is some non-binary culturally induced phenomenon, is incorrect, and that the idea of gender fluidity is in and of itself a socially constructed phenomena, is not likely to be well-received. Going against the predominant culture forces to proclaim something unpopular is not usually well received.

With that said, I’ll succinctly state that gender roles absolutely exist, and it’s the idea of gender fluidity that is socially constructed.

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Origins of Life Solved? Mechanism for Prebiotic RNA Synthesis Published

Following on the heels of yesterday’s post concerning abiogenesis, an article published in Nature Communications titled: Divergent prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidine and 8-oxo-purine ribonucleotides makes to bold claim of providing a potential mechanism to prebiotic RNA synthesis: the synthesis of RNA in the absence of biological organisms.

If you’re familiar with abiogenesis theories and hypotheses, you can feel free to skip this paragraph, as I’ll offer a brief explanation. Abiogenesis is the mechanism whereby life arises from non living chemicals, and is one of the most difficult questions to address in biology/biochemistry. There are a variety of different hypotheses surrounding how abiogenesis might have occurred, though a detailed discussion of these mechanisms is out of the scope of this post. The two main competing theories of abiogenesis are the RNA world hypothesis and the metabolism first hypothesis. RNA world proponents tend to find this idea appealing, as RNA is capable of retaining and transmitting biological information, as well as catalyzing it’s own synthesis. Recall that DNA stores biological information in a chemical form. RNA is the sister molecule to DNA, and provides a transcript for the synthesis of the cell’s working molecules, proteins. Thus RNA can function in place of both DNA and protein, theoretically. In contrast, proponents of the metabolism first hypothesis tend to believe that RNA is too complicated of a molecule to have arisen on its own, and required the development of some crude metabolic activities to direct the synthesis of RNA and other biological molecules.
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Lame Science #11: Insights into the Origins of Life Facilitated by Computer Models

The origins of life (OOL) is one of most perplexing, speculative, and controversial topics in all of biology, but it has always been one of my favorite issues to read about, discuss, and even debate. There are a variety of OOL scenarios hypothesized by researchers, each of which is fraught with its own specific and particular set of difficulties. Most people that have taken a biology class are familiar with the Miller-Urey experiment, wherein what was at the time believed to be the Earth’s early atmosphere was simulated, electricity pulsed through the “primordial atmosphere,” and the resulting compounds were analyzed. Produced in the experiment were a variety of biologically relevant compounds, including some of the alpha amino acids used in biological systems.

Considered to the be the quintessential OOL experiment, Miller-Urey initiated more than 60 years of research into the chemical origins of life, also known as abiogenesis. Any given abiogenesis scenario will have to account for a number of specific things in order to address the question adequately. These include, but are not necessarily limited to:
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Skin Cancer on the Rise Despite Historically High Sunscreen Use

I recently authored a post titled Another Reason to Not Use Sunscreen, in which discussed some research suggesting that the increased use of sunscreen is resulting in inadequate Vitamin D levels in populations around the world. In that post, I further stated that the data concerning skin cancer rates didn’t really support the use of sunscreens. Despite ever increasing SPFs, the rough quantification of a sunscreen’s protective capabilities, incidence of skin cancer hasn’t decreased, but is in fact on the rise.

This post can be considered a companion to my previous offering. Published in the Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Incidence and Trends of Basal Cell Carcinoma and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma, reports that the incidences of both basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC) are increasing, and that there is a disproportionate increase in cSCC relative to BCC. For those who don’t recall, BCC is considered the least dangerous form of skin cancer and cSCC is considered more dangerous than BCC, but less dangerous than malignant melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Though not noted in this study, other studies confirm that rates of malignant melanoma are on the rise as well. The authors further noted a disproportionate increase in the incidence of both tumors in women, and a shift of anatomical distributions of skin cancers.
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Immune Reactions Induce Learning Difficulties: Potential Implications for Vaccine-Autism Link

Allow me to preface this post with a firm affirmation that I wholeheartedly support the use of vaccines. Vaccines, along with improved sanitation and hygiene, have resulted in massive increases in public health, and overall have had overwhelmingly positive effects on their recipients, and indeed, society in general. For that matter, I recently published a post that included an infographic that very effectively illustrated the positive effect that vaccines have had with respect to public health.

Furthermore, I was not then, am not now, nor will I ever be a proponent or the debunked Wakefield study that purported to show a relationship between the Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine with autism.

That said, data such as those shown in Figure 1 below, that show rates of autism over time in the U.S.A. and U.K., and further note the specific years that the MMR vaccine introduced in those countries, are constructed to lead the reader to believe that the noted increase in the rate of autism diagnosis correlates with the introduction of the MMR vaccine.
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Science: Moral enhancement technologies are neither feasible nor wise

Though science has given us much for which we should be grateful: antibiotics, air conditioning, electricity, etc., we should be most grateful for a study that was recently published in the journal Bioethics. The article, titled Moral Enhancement Meets Normative and Empirical Reality: Assessing the Practical Feasibility of Moral Enhancement Neurotechnologies, in which the authors claim they’re assessing “the practical feasibility of moral enhancement neurotechnologies,” which is a fancy way of saying that they’re investigating whether or not pharmaceutical and/or neurostimulatory techniques could be used to improve human moral behavior.

Though I am a scientist, and work in academia, I was unaware of the “fierce debate” that exists in science surrounding ethical aspects of moral enhancement. Perhaps it because I’m a molecular biologist… it must be cognitive neuroscientists that are causing all the trouble.
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Walter Williams on Suppression of Free Speech and the Totalitarian Tendencies of Colleges in the U.S.A

On the heels of a post I authored yesterday, detailing the sad state of affairs with respect to suppression of free speech, as well as the anti-American and anti-Israeli atmosphere that exists on many if not most university campuses in the U.S.A. today. In that post, I offered an example of my own personal experiences at a major state university, as well as those of free speech advocate, and UNC Wilmington professor Mike Adams, and author Daniel Greenfield.

As if Walter Williams is reading The Reactionary Researcher Blog, he posted an article that offers a concise, no nonsense, scathing assessment of the current state of academia, as well as the total ignorance of this that pervades most of the U.S.A.

Parents, taxpayers and donors have little idea of the levels of lunacy, evil and lawlessness that have become features of many of today’s institutions of higher learning.

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The State of Free Speech on College Campuses in the U.S.A.

Publication of three recent articles, and indeed, my own personal experience, serve to highlight the particularly anti-free speech, anti-American sentiment present on college campuses today. Sure, anti-American sentiment has always had a presence on the college campus, at least since the early to mid 1960’s, but the absolute assault on free speech, the totalitarian tactics of students and perhaps more importantly, college administrators, combined with the Huxleyan ignorance that pervades our society and culture, are relatively new phenomena.

Mike Adams, professor of Sociology and Criminology at UNC-Wilmington, not the Mike Adams of the hack pseudoscience website (not linked intentionally), authored the first article that prompted this post: Thatcher in the Rye. Through the use of a specific example, Adams demonstrates the anti-free speech atmosphere that exists on college campuses today. Certainly one specific incident, an anecdote, but merely the most recent actor on a back drop of fifteen years of such columns. Adams has further emerged victorious in at least three court cases related to free speech on the UNCW campus (1, 2, 3). Adams, victorious on the front lines of university free speech issues, is more than qualified to comment on this issue.

Adams column is summarized in “five lessons” that should be taken from this incident.
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Research suggests link between imbalanced gut microbiome and systemic sclerosis


Americans and Norwegians with systemic sclerosis had higher levels of bacteria that can cause inflammation and lower levels of bacteria that are believed to protect against inflammation compared with healthy people, according to a new study by researchers from UCLA and Oslo University.

Study participants from United States, however, had a greater imbalance between the “good” and “bad” gut bacteria compared with the participants from Norway. The researchers suspect that the difference is because of a combination of genetics and diet.

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